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Procedures, Typographical Conventions and Forms of Annotation

In: Bulletin de philosophie médiévale 45, xiii-xxiv.

The Bulletin de philosophie médiévale regularly publishes articles, reports, etc. written in the widely-known scholarly vernacular languages, English, French, German, Italian and Spanish. On the precedent of some volumes containing the proceedings of the S.I.E.P.M. International Congresses, on rare occasions the Editor, in consultation with appropriate members of the Bureau of the Société, might consider publishing articles in Latin or certain other vernaculars (e.g., Dutch or Portuguese), but that is highly unlikely.

At this moment of computer-product development (2004) and until further notice, authors should prepare items for publication in the Bulletin in MS Word or save them in .rtf format, and submit them electronically by e-mail attachment to the Editorial Office. To control the vicissitudes of electronic transmission, authors should also send printed copies of their items to the Editor by post or FAX. Until now, electronic transmission of Arabic, Greek and Hebrew fonts has been hazardous. Reportedly, the operating systems of Windows 2000 and Windows XP, and those that will come after, incorporate the Uni-code feature; that means, purportedly, that scholars working with those operating systems ought to be able to transmit their documents including Arabic, Greek and Hebrew fonts to the Editorial Office (working with Windows XP) without loss or confusion of letter-forms. Otherwise, scholars should note that beginning with this issue (45 for 2003) the Bulletin has adopted the Times New Roman font for its basic text and text in footnotes. Thus, it would be convenient were scholars to use that Arabic, Greek or Hebrew font in documents submitted to the Bulletin. Scholars not using an operating system featuring Uni-code or who do not have Times New Roman special fonts should consult with the Editor before submitting their texts electronically.


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I. The Bulletin de philosophie médiévale

For the most part, the principles and forms of annotation articulated in this style-sheet follow the long-established practices of the Bulletin, with only a few modifications. The principles and formulae articulated in this style-sheet are designed to achieve a balance of precision, clarity and economy in annotation, and to establish for a multi-lingual publication a kind of koine in annotational form that does not favor singular typographical and bibliographical conventions of one scholarly language over standard conventions established in other scholarly languages. For example, for understandable historical reasons, the Bulletin adopted French typographical conventions; today, however, as many items published in the journal are written in English and German as in French. In light of that fact, some adjustments and modifications have seemed appropriate.


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(1) General Rules

(a) In general, authors should follow the typographical conventions of the language in which they have written the article or item. This principle pertains especially to the style of quotation marks, and to the placement of punctuation marks and footnote numbers in respect of quotation marks. Therefore, English writers should use the English style (“quotation?”), French writers the French style (« quotation? ») and German writers the German style („quotation?“) not only in the body of the text but in all entries in the footnotes, regardless of the language in which the article cited is written. This principle is typographically elegant and “philologically correct,” but more important, enables contributors to the Bulletin to employ the practice to which they are most accustomed and which is second-nature to them. Nota bene: This style-sheet is written in English; accordingly, in all of the bibliographical examples given below, English-style quotation marks are used for citations of articles written in any language.

(b) In bibliographical references in footnotes, the names of modern and contemporary authors, editors and translators should be printed in SMALL CAPITALS. For first and middle names, one may use initials; if one prefers, however, one may write-out the first names of authors, in which case the first name should be in the regular font and the last name in SMALL CAPITALS, e.g., J.A. AERTSEN, J. HAMESSE, D. LUSCOMBE, or Jan A. AERTSEN, Jacqueline HAMESSE, David LUSCOMBE (be consistent throughout). The full names of ancient and medieval authors should be printed in SMALL CAPITALS, e.g., ARISTOTELES, HENRICUS DE GANDAVO, ROBERTUS GROSSETESTE, THOMAS DE AQUINO. One should follow the orthography of names according to the principles enunciated, and the forms evident, in the Table des noms d'auteurs anciens et médiévaux of the Bulletin. The Editor endeavors to present there the preferred orthography of Latin names, of Greek names as transliterated in the Latin alphabet, and of transliterated forms of Arabic and Hebrew names, as they are established in critical editions, in the scholarly literature, and in authoritative bibliographical works. (Suggestions for revisions, in the light of new scholarship, are welcome.)

(c) In both the body of the text and in footnotes, titles of books, of journals, and of collected opera of ancient and medieval authors should be italicized, e.g., John Buridan: Portrait of a Fourteenth-Century Author, Bulletin de philosophie médiévale, Henrici de Gandavo Opera omnia. The titles of publication series, in footnotes cited between parentheses, should be cited in Roman font, e.g., (Studien und Texte zur Geistesgeschichte des Mittelalters 80).

(d) In general, in bibliographical references in footnotes one should cite only the place and date of publication and should not name the publisher, e.g., Louvain-la-Neuve 1993. (This assures greater consistency from author-to-author, article-to-article.) In formal bibliographies published in articles or reports, however, one may name the publisher in each entry if one desires; in such bibliographies, one must be rigorously consistent. Moreover, in footnotes it is appropriate to name the printers or publishing-firms of early-modern (15th-16th centuries) printed books.

(e) The abbreviations “p., pp.” etc. to signify page numbers should in general be eliminated. One may use the abbreviation occasionally, however, in the body of the text or in some instances in the footnotes, when one judges that it is strictly necessary for purposes of clarity. On the other hand, the abbreviation “f., ff.” (preferable to “fol., fols.”) for folios in manuscripts or early-printed books must always be used, and the abbreviations “p., pp.” must be used when citing manuscripts that are paginated.

(f) Because writers vary in their usage of them, and because they sometimes engender ambiguity, the abbreviations IDEM, Ibid., op. cit. should be used sparingly.

(g) The general principles articulated above are illustrated by the examples given in the typology of annotation in the following sections. Nota bene: For reasons of simplicity, all of the examples refer to works written in Latin or in modern European vernacular tongues. Scholars referring to texts and scholarly works written in Arabic, Greek or Hebrew should use the same typographical conventions and forms of annotation, with these specifications:

(i) Arabic names of authors and Arabic titles should be written (properly) in the transliterated alphabet.

(ii) Likewise, Hebrew names of authors and Hebrew titles should be written (properly) in the transliterated alphabet.

(iii) The names of Greek authors should be written in their proper Latinate form. Titles of texts and of scholarly works written in the Greek alphabet may be recorded in that alphabet.


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(2) Citations of Books and Monographs

(a) Examples of first citations:

F. BERTELLONI y G. BURLANDO BRAVO, La filosofía medieval (Enciclopedia iberoamericana de filosofía 24), Madrid 2002, 228-31.

O. BOULNOIS, Être et représentation (Épiméthée : Essais philosophiques), Paris 1999, 135-43.

R. BRAGUE, The Wisdom of the World: The Human Experience of the Universe in Western Thought, trans. T.L. FAGAN, Chicago-London 2003, 46-49.

M.S. DE CARVALHO, Estudos sobre Alvaro Pais e outros franciscanos: séculos XIII-XV (Estudos gerais.: Série universitária), Lisboa 2001, 38-43.

P.O. KRISTELLER, Il pensiero filosofico di Marsilio Ficino, edizione riveduta con bibliografia aggiornata (Bibliotheca), Firenze 1988, 6-13.

A. MAURER, The Philosophy of William of Ockham in the Light of Its Principles (Studies and Texts 133), Toronto 1999, 15-23.

M. OLSZEWSKI, O praktycznej bądż teoretycznej naturze teologii: Metateologia scholastyczna 1200-1350, Kraków 2002, 100-1.

H.G. SENGER, Ludus sapientiae: Studien zum Werk und zur Wirkungsgeschichte des Nikolaus von Kues (Studien und Texte zur Geistesgeschichte des Mittelalters 78), Leiden?Boston?Köln 2002, 36-45.

S. SWIEŻAWSKI, L'Univers : La philosophie de la nature au XVe siècle en Europe, traduit du polonais par J. WOLF, texte revu par L. EVEN (Studia Copernica 37), Varsovie 1999, 100-3.

(b) Subsequent citations should give the author's name and short title, e.g.:

O. BOULNOIS, Être et représentation, 42.
R. BRAGUE, The Wisdom of the World, 33.
P.O. KRISTELLER, Il pensiero filosofico, 17.
S. SWIEŻAWSKI, L'Univers, 223.

(c) Nota bene: If one's article displays abundant citations (as is most-often the case for articles published in the Bulletin), in short-title citations one may choose to refer to the note in which the full bibliographical citation of the work is given, in parentheses immediately after the short title and before the comma, e.g., O. BOULNOIS, Être et représentation (vide n. 6), 42; this practice would hold for citations of every kind of publication (books, articles, editions, etc.). In order not to impose extra labor on authors, we shall not insist on this practice, which, however, is especially helpful to readers.

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(3) Citations of Articles in Journals

(a) In the following examples, note that the comma after a title always is placed outside the quotation marks, and that in all references one should use the style of quotation marks of the language in which one has written his or her article, report, etc. Hence, since this style-sheet is written in English, English-style quotation marks are used in all of the following examples, regardless of the language of the article cited.

(b) The Bulletin has not established its own table of abbreviations for journal titles. Thus, authors should use such abbreviations only when they are universally well-established among students of medieval philosophy, and only when the author is certain that nearly all readers of the Bulletin will recognize immediately the journal titles that the abbreviations signify. Since subsequent citations of articles need give only author and short titles and need not cite the title of the journal again (see section d below), the need for such abbreviations is minimal.

(c) Examples of first citations:

A.A. AKASOY und A. FIDORA, “Hermannus Alemannus und die alia translatio der Nikomachischen Ethik”, in Bulletin de philosophie médiévale 44 (2002), 80-84.

L. BIANCHI, “New Perspectives on the Condemnation of 1277 and its Aftermath”, in Recherches de Théologie et Philosophie médiévales 70 (2003), 207-13.

A. PATTIN, “Jan Van Hulshout (1405-1475): Vlaams wijsgeer en theoloog van de Universiteit te Keulen”, in Tijdschrift voor filosofie 38 (1976), 104-28.

P. PORRO, “Heidegger, la filosofia medievale, la medievistica contemporanea”, in Quaestio: Annuario di storia della metafisica 1 (2001), 452-57.

J. PUIG MONTADA, “Avempace y los problemos de los libros VII y VIII de la Fisica”, in La cuidad de Dios 214 (2001), 163-88.

C. TROTTMANN, “A propos de la querelle avignonnaise de la vision béatifique : une réponse dominicaine au chancelier John Luttrell”, in Archives d'Histoire Doctrinale et Littéraire du Moyen-Age 61 (1994), 263-65.

(d) Subsequent citations should give the author's name and short title, e.g.:

L. BIANCHI, “New Perspectives”, 210-11.
A. PATTIN, “Jan Van Hulshout”, 116.
P. PORRO, “Heidegger”, 454.
C. TROTTMANN, “A propos”, 261-62.


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(4) Citations of Articles in Volumes of Collected Essays, Encyclopedias, Dictionaries, etc.

(a) In the following examples, note the place of series titles after the names of editors of the volume.

(b) Examples of first citations:

A. DE LIBERA, “Structure du corpus scolaire de la métaphysique dans la première moitié du XIIIe siècle”, in L'enseignement de la philosophie au XIIIe siècle : Autour du « Guide de l'étudiant » du ms. Ripoll 109, éd. C. LAFLEUR avec la collaboration de J. CARRIER (Studia Artistarum: Études sur la Faculté des arts dans les Universités médiévales 5), Turnhout 1997, 68-70.

S. DONATI, “La discussione sull'unità del concetto di ente nella tradizione di commento della Fisica: commenti parigini degli anni 1270-1315 ca.”, in Die Logik des Transzendentalen. Festschrift für Jan A. Aertsen zum 65. Geburtstag, hrsg. M. PICKAVÉ (Miscellanea Mediaevalia 30), Berlin-New York 2003, 122-25.

T. HOFFMANN, “Les idées comme essences créables chez François de Meyronnes”, in Le contemplateur et les idées : Modèles de la science divine du néoplatonisme au XVIIIe siècle, éd. O. BOULNOIS, J. SCHMUTZ et J.-L. SOLÈRE (Bibliothèque d'Histoire de la Philosophie : Nouvelle série), Paris 2002, 134-38.

J. JANSSENS, “Elements of Avicennian Metaphysics in the Summa”, in Henry of Ghent and the Transformation of Scholastic Thought: Studies in Memory of Jos Decorte, ed. G. GULDENTOPS and C. STEEL (Ancient and Medieval Philosophy Series 1: 31), Leuven 2003, 50-52.

J. MONFASANI, “Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite in Mid-Quattrocento Rome”, item IX in Language and Learning in Renaissance Italy (Variorum Collected Studies), Aldershot 1994, 208-9.

M. PICKAVÉ, “Zur Überlieferung der drei Schriften des Suger von Saint-Denis”, in Abt Suger von Saint-Denis. Ausgewählte Schriften: Ordinatio, De consecratione, De administratione, hrsg. A. SPEER und G. BINDING, Darmstadt 2000, 149-52.

J.M. SOTO RÁBANOS, “Filosofía Jurídica: De los Sínodos Medievales Hispanos a los Sínados Modernos Americanos”, in Meeting of the Minds: The Relations between Medieval and Classical Modern European Philosophy. Acts of the International Colloquium held at Boston College June 14-16, 1996 organized by the Société Internationale pour l'Étude de la Philosophie Médiévale, ed. S.F. BROWN (Rencontres de philosophie médiévale 7), Turnhout 1998, 442-45.

Nota bene: As in the above citation, the titles of colloquia, meetings, etc., should be printed in Roman font when they are added to the literary title of the volume.

A. STOELEN, “Denys le Chartreux”, in Dictionnaire de spiritualité ascétique et mystique 3 (1957), 436-47.

G.A. WILSON, “Roger Marston”, in A Companion to Philosophy in the Middle Ages, ed. J.J.E. GRACIA and T.B. NOONE (Blackwell Companions to Philosophy), Oxford 2003, 626-29.

(c) Subsequent citations should give the author's name and short title, e.g.:

A. DE LIBERA, “Structure du corpus scolaire”, 73-74.
T. HOFFMANN, “Les idées”, 136.
J. MONFASANI, “Pseudo-Dionysius”, 205.
M. PICKAVÉ, “Zur Überlieferung”, 151.



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(5) Citations of Texts by Ancient and Medieval Authors

(a) Because of the general bibliographical complexity of early-modern printed editions and modern critical editions, widely varying medieval systems of text-division and systems of text-division devised by modern editors, differing systems of line-numeration, and diverse formats of publication (i.e., in journal-articles, in single volumes, in volumes included in a general publication series, in collections of Opera omnia, in large collections comprising editions of texts by many authors), it is impossible to conceive or prescribe generic formulae that can envision or encompass all of the exigencies in citing texts by ancient and medieval authors. In general, contributors to the Bulletin in their first citations of editions must (i) follow the typographical conventions expressed above (e.g., for authors' names, titles), (ii) be sure to include all of the bibliographical elements in their citations, and (iii), as regards particular texts (e.g., the texts of Aristotle), follow conventions accepted at large in the scholarly community. The important thing is to be (analogically) consistent throughout the article, and to be artful in treating singular features of particular texts and editions.

(b) In their citations of editions subsequent to the first, authors will make use of abbreviations (for titles, series, etc.) and will be able to eliminate bibliographical elements included in their first citations. In their abbreviated references, authors must include the key identifying elements and avoid all ambiguity.

(c) When they are cited, line numbers in critical editions should be attached to the page numbers divided by a point (period), e.g., 333.16-18, or 335-36.22-28.

(d) Authors should be mindful of the distinctions among medieval text-divisions, longstanding editorial text-divisions that have become conventional among scholars, and text-divisions that have been imposed for the sake of convenience by editors of modern critical editions. Apt placement of modern text-division numbers depends upon several variables, e.g., the system of line-numeration employed by the editor, i.e.: Are the line numbers re-started within each paragraph- or section-division imposed by the editor, or are they re-started on each page or re-started every 100 lines, or are the lines numbered sequentially throughout larger text-divisions, e.g., questions or chapters?

(e) The following (relatively simple) examples of first citations of editions are not prescriptive but indicative. The examples are conceived in analogy with forms of citation illustrated in the sections above:

ALBERTUS MAGNUS, Super Dionysii Mysticam theologiam c.3, ed. P. SIMON, in Sancti doctoris ecclesiae Alberti Magni... Opera omnia 37.2, Münster i.W. 1978, 469.67-74.

BONAVENTURA, In I Sent. d.10 a.1 q.2 concl., studio et cura PP. Collegii a S. Bonaventura (Quarrachi Ed.), in Doctoris seraphici S. Bonaventurae... Opera omnia 1, Quarrachi 1882, 197b.

GUALTERUS DE BURLEY, Expositio super librum Posteriorum I c.1 [§2.5], ed. M. VON PERGER, “Walter Burley über das Vorwissen des Schlusswissens. Eine provisorische Edition von Prolog und Kap. 1 der Expositio super librum Posteriorum”, in Traditio 57 (2002), 274.

Nota bene: In the above example as in others that follow, Book-numbers (Liber, Libri) of the work are indicated in Roman numerals, while the numbers of other text-divisions are indicated in Arabic numerals; the section-division number imposed by the modern editor is in square brackets [§2.5]. Authors must decide how to treat such modern editorial text-divisions on a case-by-case basis (see section d above).

GUILLELMUS DE OCKHAM, Summa logicae I c.16, ed. P. BOEHNER, G. GÁL et S. BROWN, in Guillelmi de Ockham Opera philosophica 1, St. Bonaventure, N.Y. 1974, 54.11-18.

HENRICUS DE GANDAVO, Quodlibet III q.10, ed. I. BADIO ASCENSIO, in Quodlibeta Magistri Henrici Goethals a Gandavo doctoris solemnis, Paris 1518: reprt. Louvain 1961, ff. 62vT-63rV.

HENRICUS DE GANDAVO, Quodlibet IX q.5, ed. R. MACKEN, in Henrici de Gandavo Opera omnia 13, Leuven 1983, 104.38-48.

IOHANNES BURIDANUS, Summulae [tract. 2] de praedicabilis 2.1.2, ed. L.M. DE RIJK (Artistarium 10-2), Nijmegen 1995, 11.7-13.

NICOLAUS DE CUSA, De concordantia catholica III c.1 [294], ed. G. KALLEN, in Nicolai de Cusa Opera omnia 14.3, Hamburg 1959, 328.1-6.

(f) The following examples illustrate the citation of texts edited in such well-known series, comprising texts by many different authors, as the Patrologia Latina (PL), Patrologia Graeca (PG), Corpus Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum Latinorum (CSEL), Corpus Christianorum Series Latina (CCSL) and Corpus Christianorum Continuatio Mediaeualis (CCCM) et al. These series are here conceived as analogous with publication series, and thus are indicated in Roman font; because the series are known to every medievalist, they may be abbreviated in first citations as in subsequent citations.

AUGUSTINUS, De Trinitate I.2.4, ed. W.J. MOUNTAIN auxiliante Fr. GLORIE, in CCSL 50, Turnhout 1968, 31.13-18.

HUGO DE SANCTO VICTORE, De sacramentis II pars 3 c.2, ed. J.-P. MIGNE, in PL 176, Paris 1880, 422D. (Nota bene: Scholars may decide whether the mention of Migne in references to the PL and PG is necessary.)

IOHANNES CASSIANUS, De institutis coenobiorum V.23, ed. M. PETSCHENG, in CSEL 17, Wien 1888, 101.15.

(g) In subsequent references to editions such as those cited in sections (e) and (f), abbreviated citations such as the following would be sufficient. The principle is to be economical, while making clear the identity of the text and edition previously referred to. Examples:

ALBERTUS MAGNUS, Super Dionysii Myst. theol. c.5, ed. P. SIMON, in Op. om. 37.2, 474.31-36.

AUGUSTINUS, De Trin. III.1.22, ed. W.J. MOUNTAIN, in CCSL 50, 151.8-16.

BONAVENTURA, In I Sent. d.14 a.2 q.1 ad 2, Quarrachi Ed., in Op. om. 1, 250a.

GUALTERUS DE BURLEY, Super lib. Post. I c.1 [§1.4], ed. M. VON PERGER, 268.


HENRICUS DE GANDAVO, Quodl. IX q.11, ed. R. MACKEN, 222-23.90-97.

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(6) Citations of Manuscripts

(a) In articles and reports, the first citation of a manuscript (in the body of the text or in a footnote) should be full, the name of the city and the currently official name of the library being written-out in the language of the place in which the library is located. Insofar as it is possible to know, scholars should use the signifier for a manuscript book (e.g., Ms., Cod., Hs.) that is preferred by the particular library, as indicated in printed catalogues or as is in use within the library. For the proper names of libraries and their locations, and for extensive bibliographies of manuscript catalogues and inventories, consult: P.O. KRISTELLER, Latin Manuscript Books before 1600: A List of the Printed Catalogues and Unpublished Inventories of Extant Collections, 4th revised and enlarged edition by S. KRÄMER (Monumenta Germaniae Historica: Hilfsmittel 13), München 1993. (Information in this work will need constant supplementation and updating.)

Examples of manuscript citation:

Darmstadt, Hessische Landes- und Hochschulbibliothek, Hs. 79, ff. 9r-17r.

Douai, Bibliothèque Municipale, Ms. 471, pp. 493-529. (Nota bene: this manuscript is paginated, and so it must be signified.)

Firenze, Biblioteca Nationale Centrale, Conv. Soppr. A.5.563, ff. 32ra-43vb.

's-Gravenhage, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Hs. 73.G.9, ff. 127r-176v.

Kraków, Biblioteka Jagiellońska, Cod. 686, ff. 1ra-78vb.

München, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Clm 18199, ff. 118ra-148rb.

Oxford, Merton College Library, Ms. 149, ff. 36ra-43va.

Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, Ms. lat. 15461, f. 26rb.

Città del Vaticano, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Cod. Vat. lat. 4538, ff. 1ra-2vb.

(b) In subsequent citations of manuscripts, scholars may use standard, intelligible abbreviations, e.g.:

Douai, BM, Ms. 471
Firenze, Bibl. Nat. Centr., Conv. Soppr. A.5.563
's-Gravenhage, KB, Hs. 73.G.9
Kraków, BJ, Cod. 686
Paris, BNF, Ms. lat. 15461
Vat., BAV, Cod. Vat. lat. 4538

Of course, even shorter references will be made in discourse; the principle is consistency and clarity.

(c) In information submitted on the S.I.E.P.M. Questionnaires, to be published in section IV of the Bulletin: Les éditions et les travaux en cours, scholars may abbreviate their citations of manuscripts. It is crucial that the location and name of the library be clearly understood from the abbreviation, and that shelf-marks be complete and accurate.


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II. Editorial Procedures for Volumes in the Series
«Rencontres de philosophie médiévale»



The scholarly editor or editors?henceforward called the “volume-editor”?of volumes in the series «Rencontres de philosophie médiévale», which usually comprise the proceedings of S.I.E.P.M. annual Colloquia, and the General Editor and Editorial Office collaborate in the publication of the book. The respective duties of the volume-editor(s) and the General Editor are these:

(1) The volume-editor is responsible (a) for assembling the essays in the volume and setting the deadline for submission, (b) for editing the essays, (c) for preparing the annotation in each essay according to the norms specified above (for the Bulletin), and (d) for preparing the indices of manuscripts, of ancient and medieval authors, and of modern and contemporary authors (see 3 below). The volume-editor must prepare the text in computer files in a uniform format, and then submit the files by e-mail attachment to the General Editor, as well as a printed copy by post.

(2) The General Editor is responsible (a) for preparing the camera-ready copy for the publisher (Brepols) and (b), in the process, for making sure that the annotation etc. conform to the standards of S.I.E.P.M. publications.

(3) When the General Editor has established page-proofs of the text of the essays sent to him by the volume-editor, he will send them to the volume-editor so that he or she may prepare the indices. When the volume-editor has completed that work, he or she will send the indices to the General Editor, who will put them in their final camera-ready format, and submit the whole volume to the publisher for printing.

(4) Between them, the volume-editor and the General Editor will decide how best to send-out proofs to authors, etc., during the course of publication.

Kent Emery, Jr. (Notre Dame)
Editor, Publications of the S.I.E.P.M.